The following essay will concentrate on the reciprocal relationship between the media and society, focusing on journalism in particular. A brief overview of the terms used in this essay will be used first to create a common understanding. This will be achieved by discussing theories regarding mass media and journalism as separate entities. The two will then be combined to discuss how mass media affects , and is affected by society. This will be done by referring to the many theories regarding journalism and mass media and how thy correspond with society using theories such as the normative press theories.
To understand the effect of something, one first needs to understand the subject itself. Therefore to discuss the effect of mass media, one must fully understand the concept of mass communication and how it functions as an integral part of society. Only once this concept is understood, can it be discussed as a reactor to change in society. The paragraph following will explain the phenomenon of mass media.
Mass communication can simply be described as a message sent to a large audience. The audience that the message is referred to as a homogenous audience. This means the audience has a varied mix of people within it. The message can therefore be considered to be completely unbiased as many different types of people will be exposed to it. This however, is not true. When an advertising agency puts up a billboard for instance, it will be put in a certain area and will in turn be exposed to a particular audience. This group will be referred to as the target audience. A message cannot be effective unless sent through a particular medium. A medium is he way the message is transmitted. In the case of the advertising agency, the medium would be the billboard. The mediums used by mass communication are referred to as mass media. Mass media is the vehicle for the transmission of media messages and can consist of newspapers, film, radio, etc.
With this understanding the effect of mass communication can be better understood. According to Pember, (1987: 2), вЂњmass media is constantly supplying us with information, and influencing, educating or entertaining usвЂќ. Pember is referring to the two functions of mass media, namely: the information function and entertainment function. Mass communication cannot be separated from the individual or society. It is a part of everyday life as a pervasive force, as stated by Pember. Hiebert, Ungurait & Bohn (1991) are also noted for saying that mass communication is as much part of modern society as are schools, churches and businesses. It can also be described as one of the important subsystems of society together with the political, economic, cultural and other subsystems. It can hence be concluded that mass communication must always exist in a social context and therefore affect it and be affected in turn by society.
The following paragraphs will establish what is meant by the term journalism and the ways in which it affects and is affected by society. Journalism can be described as the process of gathering and reporting news to mass audiences with the in intention of informing them. Journalism can be said to be fulfilling the information function of mass media. Vincent CampbellвЂ™s quotes (Hartley in Campbell, 2004: 1) of John Hartley can be considered to answer the question of journalism in modern society. Hartley asked what it is that journalism does. He stated that news organizations exist where there is democracy and where there is not. They exist where government is largely open and where decision making is largely secret. They can be found where parties are strong or weak, where public ownership of communication media is powerful or absent. That question was answered by Francois Nel (2001: 3) when he said вЂњWe need news to live our lives. It helps us to distinguish between threats and opportunities, enemies and friends. News helps us orientate ourselves, and it helps us connect with others. If the mass media are the system that societies generate to supply this news, then journalism is its lifeblood. That is why the character of the news and the quality of the journalism are important; they influence our thoughts, our experiences, our culturesвЂќ.
Michael OвЂ™Shaughnessy and Jane Stadler (Journalism 2A Reader) have analyzed the relationship between society and the media by examining three key areas namely: contemporary society, how the media works, the effects and influence of the media on society. OвЂ™Shaughnessy and Stadler firstly noted three characteristics of contemporary society namely: change and crisis, inequality and difference, and maintaining consent in western democracies. The next area they focused on was the way in which media works. They gave three вЂњstaring point positionsвЂќ on how the media works. The first,