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Porters Anaysis

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Consumer Behaviour - The field of Consumer Behavior “studies how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose off goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.” (Philip Kotler)

Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Driving force is produced by a state of tension which exist as a result of some unfulfilled need. Individuals strive both consciously and unconsciously to reduce this tension through behaviour that they anticipate will fulfil their needs and thus will relieve them of the tension.

Innate needs and Acquired needs

Every individual has needs. Needs are of two types:

Innate needs are physiological in nature .ie. the need for food, water, air, shelter, sex, etc. As they are required to sustain the biological needs, they are known as the primary needs or motives.

Acquired needs are needs that we learn in response to our cultural environment. It includes the need for self-esteem, affectation, prestige, etc. Because they are psychological in nature, they are considered to be secondary needs or motives.

Individuals are usually more aware of their physiological needs than they are of their psychological needs. Most people know when they are hungry or thirsty but may not be consciously aware that of their need for acceptance, self-esteem or status. They may however subconsciously involve in behaviour that satisfies their psychological needs.

GOALS - Goals are the sought after results of motivated behavior. Goals are of two types: Generic Goals e.g. Goal to become a professional manager and Product Specific Goals eg: goal to join SCMS. Individuals set goals on the basis personal values and they select means that they believe will help them to achieve the desired goals.

Needs and goals are inter-dependant: neither exists without the other. People are often not aware of their needs as they are of their goals.

1). Ideals: which represent hopes , wishes and aspirations. Consumers concerned with ideals rely more on feelings and emotions in evaluating  ads:

2) Oughts: which represent duties, obligations and responsibilities. Consumers concerned with oughts rely more on the substantiated factual contents in evaluating ads.


  • Positive Motivation: consumers may feel a strong driving force towards some object or condition. For eg. Coppertone is used for tanning

  • Negative motivation: Consumers may feel a strong aversion or need to avoid certain things or conditions. For eg Hit is used to avoid flies and other insects

Though some psychologists have tried to link positive motivation to needs, wants and desires and negative motivation to fears and aversions it was later established that both are need based. Needs, wants and desires may lead to Goals which can be positive or negative.

Two types of goals

  • Approach Object: A positive goal and behaviour is directed at attaining this goal. Eor eg: Use a particular shampoo for getting shiny and bouncy hair
  • Avoidance Object; A negative goal and behaviour is directed away from in order to avoid this condition. Eg : Head and shoulders used to clear dandruff

Trio of needs

  • Power: This need relates to an individuals desire to control his or her environment.
  • Affiliation: Need for friendship, acceptance and for belonging.
  • Achievement:   Some people regard personal accomplishment as the ultimate Goal. The achievement need is closely related to both the egoistic as well as self-actualisation needs.

Defence mechanism – People who cannot cope up with frustration due to experiencing any failure, often redefine their frustrating situation in order to protect their self image or self esteem. This is called Défense mechanism. Marketer often use this to construct advertisements that potrays where a person resolving a particular frustration through the use of an advertised product.

  1. Aggression – When a person is frustrated, he or she may resort to a aggressive behaviour in a attempt to protect their self esteem. For eg. A tennis player who slams the tennis racket to ground when he is disappointed with the game.
  2. Rationalization – People sometimes resolve frustration by inventing plausible reasons for being unable to attain their goals. For : Not getting enough time to practise.
  3. Regression – A person may react to a frustrating situation in a childish or immature behaviour. For eg. A shopper attending a bargain sale.
  4. Withdrawal – By simply withdrawing from the situation.
  5. Projection – By projecting the blame of his or her failures and inabilities on other objects or inabilities. For eg, A golfer who misses a stroke blames on his golf club, A student who fails in an exam blames his/ her teacher.
  6. Daydreaming – It enables the individuals to attain gratification of unfulfilled needs. For eg, A person who is very shy may dream about a romantic love affair.
  7. Identification – People resolve frustration by subconsciously identifying with other persons or situations that the consider relevant.
  8. Repression/ Sublimation – People sometimes resolve to frustration by repressing the unsatisfied need. For eg, a women who cannot bear children will teach in a school.

PERSONALITY - Personality refers to those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.

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