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Porter 5 Forces Analysis

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Porter 5 forces analysis

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Porter's 5 forces analysis is a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development developed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979 . It uses concepts developed in Industrial Organization (IO) economics to derive 5 forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Porter referred to these forces as the microenvironment, to contrast it with the more general term macroenvironment. They consist of those forces close to a company that affect its ability to serve its customers and make a profit. A change in any of the forces normally requires a company to re-assess the marketplace.

Strategy consultants use Porter's five forces framework when making a qualitative evaluation of a firm's strategic position. The framework is textbook material for modern business studies and therefore widely known.

Porter's Five Forces include three forces from 'horizontal' competition: threat of substitute products, the threat of established rivals, and the threat of new entrants; and two forces from 'vertical' competition: the bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers.

Each of these forces has several determinants:

A graphical representation of Porters Five ForcesThe threat of substitute products

The existence of close substitute products increases the propensity of customers to switch to alternatives in response to price increases (high elasticity of demand).

buyer propensity to substitute

relative price performance of substitutes

buyer switching costs

perceived level of product differentiation

The threat of the entry of new competitors

Profitable markets that yield high returns will draw firms. The results is many new entrants, which will effectively decrease profitability. Unless the entry of new firms can be blocked by incumbents, the profit rate will fall towards a competitive level (perfect competition).

the existence of barriers to entry (patents, rights, etc.)

economies of product differences

brand equity

switching costs or sunk costs

capital requirements

access to distribution

absolute cost advantages

learning curve advantages

expected retaliation by incumbents

government policies

The intensity of competitive rivalry

For most industries, this is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. Sometimes rivals compete aggressively and sometimes rivals compete in non-price dimensions such as innovation, marketing, etc.

number of competitors

rate of industry growth

intermittent industry overcapacity

exit barriers

diversity of competitors

informational complexity and asymmetry

fixed cost allocation per value added

level of advertising expense

The bargaining power of customers

Also described as the market of outputs. The ability of customers to put the firm under pressure and it also affects the customer's sensitivity to price changes.

buyer concentration to firm concentration ratio

bargaining

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