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American Revolution

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The American Revolution was a conflict between 13 British colonies in North America and their parent country, Great Britain. It was made up of two related events: the American War of Independence and the design of the American government.

In 1775, the commander of British forces, General Thomas Gage, sent out troops to Concord and Lexington. The mission was to capture leaders of the rebel cause, John Hancock and Sam Adams. The rebel Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott set out to tell Hancock and Adams who were at Lexington. Both Dawes and Revere were captured on the way to concord. Prescott escaped by leaving the road and making his way to Concord by way of the countryside. British units reached Lexington at dawn. Major Pitcairn ordered the townsmen to scatter, as they did, a shot rang out. Who fired the shot is uncertain. The British countered with a stream of shots. The British pushed onto fateful Concord. As the British pushed on toward Concord, Prescott's warning preceded their coming. The British troops were forced to retreat to Boston. The minutemen hid behind trees and stone walls and attacked British troops with rifle fire. This proved a costly incident for the British.

Bunker Hill was the first real battle of the American Revolution, in Charlestown, Massachusetts. At issue in the battle was possession of Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill. American troops, led by Colonel William Prescott, occupied and prepared Breed's Hill during the night as part of a tactical plan to make the British leave Boston. The next day the British commander in chief Thomas Gage began arrangements for an attack on the Americans. The British troops launched their initial assault on Breed's Hill. Sustaining severe losses, the British retreated to the base of the hill. Gage ordered a second charge, which was similarly revolted. During the third British assault the American troops were forced to withdraw due to lack of ammunition. The British then attacked and captured both hills. Charleston was set on fire by British shells and burned. The Bunker Hill Monument stands on Breed's Hill in remembrance of the battle.

The Battle of Saratoga is considered to be the major turning point of the American Revolution. This battle proved to the world that the American army was an effective fighting force capable of defeating the British forces in a major confrontation. As a result of this successful battle, the European powers took interest in the cause of the Americans and began to support them.

In the British Campaign of 1777, Major General Burgoyne planned a concentric advance of three columns to meet in Albany, New York. The goal of this plan was to isolate and destroy the Continental forces of New England. At the Battle of Bemis Heights, the second battle of Saratoga, Burgoyne desperately attacked rebel defenses with his tired, discouraged army. At Bemis Heights, Gate's defensive strategies had assured a strategic victory for the Patriots. However, Arnold saw an opportunity to grab the offensive while Burgoyne was susceptible and led a counterattack. This move wounded the British forces so badly that Burgoyne surrendered days later at Saratoga.

The battle of Yorktown began in September of 1781. The British General sent requests for reinforcements and even thought about ferrying his men across the river to safety. The French and Americans began a long bombardment. With no reinforcements, and the constant attack by French and Americans, Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, led Cornwallis to see there was little hope left for his army. He surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781.

The Tea Act in 1773 again angered the radicals, regardless of the fact that it would lower tea prices. In 1774 the Georgia House of Commons passed a number of declarations about the relation of England and the colonies in general. In spite of the prior political problems, when the First Continental Congress is assembled no one from Georgia. The Midway district appointed Lyman Hall as its representative, but he did not attend, feeling that he couldn’t

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