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Sociology Question Answers

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Chapter 1 1.The natural sciences include all of the following except: B.anthropology
2.Sociologists look for patterns, recurring characteristics or events, in their data to achieve the goal of:
3.By__ Europe had completed changing from agriculture to factory production.
4.The turmoil caused by a shift from agriculture to factory production was called:
C.the Industrial Revolution
5.___ is often referred to as the founder of sociology.
D.August Comte
6.Karl Marx referred to the controlling class who own the means to produce wealth, capital, land, factories, and machines as the:
7.___ was developed by Karl Marx to explain human history.
D.Conflict theory
8.According to Emile Durkheim’s famous study, which of the following groups is the most likely to have the highest suicide rate?
B.wealthy, unmarried Protestants
9.Max Weber believed that _________ was the central force for social change.
10.“People who share a culture and a territory” is to define the following which concept?
11.“The application of the scientific approach to the social world” refers to which of the terminology below?
12.W.E.B. DeBois is remembered for research on what subject?
E.Relations between whites and African Americans
13.Which of the following statements is true based on the text?A.Sociologists agree that research should be objective.B.The researcher’s values and beliefs should not influence conclusions.C.Sociologists don’t agree on the uses of the sociological research.
D.All of the above is true.
14.Which theoretical perspective would be most useful in analyzing a small group interaction, such as the social dynamics in a classroom?
H.Symbolic interactionism
15.Which of the following does functionalism focus on?
E.Relationships among the parts of society        
...Karl Marx-founder of Conflict Theory, bourgeoisie, proletariat, means of production,
Emile Durkheim-social facts (pattern of behavior), social integration, suicide, anomie,
Max Weber-Protestant ethic & capitalism, objectivity & value-free, Verstehen (insight understanding)
Herbert Spencer- principle of “survival of the fittest”, Social Darwinism
C. Wright Mills- sociological imagination, personal problems, social problems          
August Comte-father of sociology, coined the term of sociology, positivism, objective observation        
W.E.B Du Bois- NAACP, studies on relations between African Americans and whites
Jane Adams- sociologist and social reformer, co-founder of Hull House, women’s rights        
George Herbert Mead-development of Symbolic Interactionism, society= everyday interaction of individuals
Charles Horton Cooley- helped develop Symbolic Interactionism
Talcott Parsons- Structural Functionalism, Structure-interlocking social organization (institutions, statuses, roles, etc), functions-meet people’s needs
Robert Merton- Functionalism, manifest function (intended), latent function (unintended), dysfunction (negative)
Functionalist and Conflict theorists tend to focus on large-scale patterns of society (Macro-level) while Symbolic interactionalists pay attention to the face-to-face (micro-level)         

Chapter 2 1.Jewelry, art and buildings are all examples of:B.material culture
2.People in all societies have fundamental orientations toward life that they take for granted; these essentially determine the type of people they are.  Sociologists call these orientations:
A.the culture within us
3.The tendency to use our own group’s ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others is called:
4.When we practice_________ we try to understand a culture on its own terms.
B.cultural relativism
5.A form of non-material culture, _________ allow (s) one generation to pass significant experiences along to the next generation.
6.The Sapir-Wharf hypothesis is based on the belief that:
D.language is the basis of culture
7.___ are ways that we can use our bodies to communicate without words.
8.Two examples of__ are incest taboos and courtship customs.
B.universal human activities
9.A person who rapes or steals has violated a:
10.Serving turkey for Thanksgiving dinner is an example of a:
11.An example of__ is the custom of maintaining a nine-month school year in the U.S. even though this custom no longer matches the current technology.
D.cultural lag
12.What is a counter-culture?
B.A group, which has values in opposition to the dominant culture.
13.Which of the following best describes cultural diffusion?
A.The spread of culture over a specific geographic area
14.Teaching your child that lying is wrong, then lying to your boss is an example of:
C.real culture
15.What is a cultural universal?
B.A cultural trait that occurs in all cultures.                                
…..Material culture-all tangible products of a society, cars, clothing, housings, TVs, planes, etc.
Nonmaterial culture-all intangible products of a society, laws, ideas, values, beliefs, norm, etc.
Ethnocentrism-using one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of individual or society        
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis= language determines our consciousness and our perceptions of life around us                
Mores=are strictly enforced Folkways=not strictly enforced Taboos= norms that are strongly prohibited    
Cultural lag - William Ogburn developed the term cultural lag, not all parts of a culture change at the same pace, goes along with cultural change

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