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Literature Review on Business Ethics

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BUSINESS ETHICS, RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY

THE IMPACT OF WORK LIFE BALANCE IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE JOB SATISFACTION

PREPARED BY:

AFIFAH AKILAH BINTI AZMAN                MBS141166

PREPARED FOR:

DR. CHOI SANG LONG

DATE OF SUBMISSION:        14th NOVEMBER 2015


THE IMPACT OF WORK LIFE BALANCE IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE JOB SATISFACTION

AFIFAH AKILAH BINTI AZMAN

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine quality of work life in order to achieve job satisfaction the organization in every sector whether it is education, service sector, banking sector, tourism, manufacturing, etc. Employees’ commitment, productivity, attrition are depend upon the dimensions of quality of work life such as  job  satisfaction, organizational  commitment,  reward  and  recognition,  participative  management,  work  life  balance,    proper grievances  handling,  welfare facilities,  work  environment and so on.  An organization provides a better quality of work environment then it will develop the healthy working environment as well as satisfied employee. High in quality of work can give a result in better organizational performance, effectiveness and innovativeness. Quality of  work  life  is the  corroboration  between the employees  and  their organization  parallel may  improves  the  family  life  as  well  as  work  life  of  the  individual.  

Keywords: Quality of work life, job satisfaction

  1. Introduction

The rapid economic growth and development in the world has created new activities and open new doors for all the business organizations. The globalization trend has put the organizations hard to retain their competitive advantage. The changes in business activities bring change in culture and perception of the employees. Organizational changes due to downsizing, mergers/ acquisitions and radical changes in technology have changed the work setups. The employees in present are more involved in their jobs than in the last decade. The long working hours, work pressure, high demanding jobs, use of sophisticated technology made it difficult for employees to keep a balance between their job and work commitments (Nadeem and Abbas 2009).

A high quality of work life is essential for organizations in order to attract and retain employees.  The  continued  restructuring,  downsizing  and  reorganization  of  the  health  care  system  have negatively  impacted  staff  morale  and  job  satisfaction. Quality  of  work  life  is  philosophical  which holds  on a set  of  principles  that  people  are  the  most  important  resource  in  the  organization  as  they  are  trustworthy, responsible  and  capable  of  making  contributions  and  that  they  should  be  treated  with  dignity  and  respect.

Quality has become mandatory for organizations out of necessity.  In  our  age,  it is observed  that  a  large number  of  organizations have  been  dedicated to  providing  the best business culture. Miller (1978) emphasized that earlier the work life used to begin at age 16 and end at age 70 and now begins at 20 and ends at 62 for most of the working personals. However, restrained effects of the increase in average length of life over the last 80 years may be associated with certain changes in work- life history as more people reach the older ages with their health to permit them to enjoy leisure and image of the retirement years. In-spite of that changing view of marriage like relationships also affects work-life balance as many women are no longer expecting lifelong partners, and consequently they stress the importance of acquiring skills and qualifications as stated by researcher Lewis et al. (1999) whereas in contradiction to the above Milkie and Peltola (1999) stressed that happier marriages are related to a greater sense of success in balancing work and family.

In addition, the most important asset for the organization is high quality manpower. Quality of human resources depends on the quality of working life offered through the management or organisation. Quality  of  work life  is a  concern not  only  to improve  life  at work,  but also  life  outside  work.  It is nothing but having a work environment where an employee’s activities become more important. This means implementing  procedures  or  policies  that  make  the  work  less  routine  and  more  rewarding  for  the  employee. These procedures or policies include autonomy, recognition, belongingness, development and external rewards. It is a prerequisite to have effective motivation of employees in the workplace (Bansal and Sharma, 2012) Influencing motivation (Hall et al., 2009) leads the combination of two personal variables which are tendency to approach success and tendency to avoid failure (Atkinson and Feather, 1966). Some researchers have identified that Masculinity Femininity dimension also affects motivation (Bansal and Sharma , 2012) whereas fathers tend to use work-life balance measures to spend time with the families where increase their sense of entitlement (Gregory and Milner, 2011) and a voluntary approach to work-life balance may only deliver positive benefits to woman (Doherty, 2004). Herzberg et al. (1959) developed two distinct lists of factors; one is task-related which caused happy feelings or a good attitude within the worker and Herzberg called these as motivators. These are:

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