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Essay title: Africa

What were the African reactions to slave trade? (The question requires for you to describe the reaction of Africans from the point of views of peoples, individuals and captives).

The Atlantic slave trade which was inevitably began by the Portuguese, but later in time taken over by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and throughout the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. Most slaves were transported from West Africa and Central Africa to the New World. Although slavery and slave trading already existed it became well known and practiced in all cultures. During this time while Europeans obtained most slaves through coastal trade with African states, some slaves were captured through raids and kidnapping. The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle the Triangular Trade and its Middle Passage which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and millions of people. Let's take Olaudah Equaino for instance being a slave was not easy for him at all being raided and taken from your family at the tender age of ten years old. It was said that when Equiano became a slave his experiences convinced him that he had entered a world of hell and destruction. Being that Equiano was not comfortable with the customs to living as a slave he became even more disgusted with the close confinements and unstable conditions he and other slaves were forced to live under. Due to these heinous conditions Equiano wanted to just give up, which included losing his appetite and hoping to die, the sailors took him on deck to whip him. It has even been said that when the slaves tried to go out on deck and receive fresh the crew strung nets to prevent them from jumping overboard. Though the slaves were deprived of their freedom, they're usage of speaking the same language was even put to cease by separating any individuals who did speak the same language. There was no joy being in this type of atmosphere and it was very devastating which led to depression or nostalgia of many slaves because they had such a strong attachment to their native lands.

During this horrible time the slaves were treated immorally, not only was they're dignity taken away from them but also their respect. The unsanitary conditions brought about many seaboard epidemics, which many slaves died off from encouraging slave captains to go out and get more slaves to replace those who died. The death rates of slaves were escalating at an unimaginable all-time high. We will now go into further depth of a captain's story during the time of the slave trade, Mr. John Newton. Being a slave captain he participated in the enslavement and ill treatment of men, women and even children. He treated his slave cargoes very harsh and always kept ammunition and ship guns in case one of the African's resisted an order that they were instructed to do. Though Newton eventually retired from the slave trade in 1754 due to health problems he became strongly involved in religious aspects. However around the 1770's Mr. Newton had a change of heart and with this being said he became the slave trade's leading opponent. For so many reasons, Mr. Newton and many other religious believers started seeing the evil behind slave trading, despite their huge respect in reverence of God.

What were the consequences of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade for Africa, Europe and the Americas?

The consequences which resulted of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade for Africa, Europe and the Americas were due to numerous of reasons. Being that Europe provided such a desiring market for sugar, cultivation of this crop in the America's became beneficial. In the years later on down the line the cultivation for tobacco increasingly grew to the demand of African slaves. In about 1510 Spain adjoined Portugal strongly increasing the growth of the Atlantic slave trade, and unfortunately due to this a new acrid form of slavery started in the Americas. The difference between slavery that took place in Africa, Asia, and Europe slavery in the America's slavery was strictly based on race being that most of the enslaved were genuinely males who worked as agricultural laborers. The enslaved also became known as personal property to their masters and lost all their rightful customary rights being human beings. Portugal and Spain did end up dominating the slaver trade during the 16th century; as a result they shipped over two thousand Africans per year to the Americas. The trading that took place of import goods in exchange with the return of the exporting of Africans was a complete consequence of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade. The profits from the slave trade were so great the Dutch, French and English become involved in 1550. With the development of tobacco as a cash crop in Virginia and Maryland during the

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