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Management Theory & Practices (classic Approches)

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Essay title: Management Theory & Practices (classic Approches)

Management Theory & Practices



Key Concepts

• Systematic manufacturing operations

• Coordination of procedures & processes built into internal operations

• Emphasis on economical operations, inventory management & cost control.


• 1890-1900 = Beginning of formal management in the US promotion of efficient, uninterrupted production.


• Ignored relation ship between an organization & its environment.

• Ignored difference in manager’s & worker’s views.

During the 19 th century growth in U.S businesses centered on manufacturing.

Early writers such as Adam Smith believed the management of these firms was chaotic [disordered] & there ideas held to systemize it.

Most organizational tasks were subdivided & performed by specialized labor. However poor coordination among subordinates & different levels of management caused frequent problems & breakdown of the manufacturing process.

The Systematic Management approach attempted to build specific procedures & processes into operations to ensure coordination of effort. Systematic management emphasized economical operations, adequate staffing, maintenance of inventories to meet customer demand & organizational control. These goals were achieved through:

• Careful definition of duties & responsibilities.

• Standardized techniques for performing these duties.

• Specific means of gathering, handling, transmitting & annualizing information.

• Cost according wage, & production control systems to facilitate internal coordination & communication.

Systematic management emphasized internal operations because managers were concerted primarily with meeting the explosive growth in demand bought about by the industrial revolution.


Systematic Management failed to lead into the widespread production efficiency.

Taylor – US Engineer

Midvale Steel Company – 1878


Production & pay are poor

Inefficiency & waist is prevalent [Common]

Companies have tremendous unused potential.

Solution = Scientific Management

a) Analyze work

b) How to complete the Tasks effectively

c) Scientific calculations instead of General guidelines


U.S Steel’s contract with the United Steel Workers of America specified that:

Shovelers should move 12.5 shovelfuls p/m

Shovelfuls should average [W]15 pounds of River Sand Composed of 5.5 % moisture

Taylor’s Four Principles of Management

1. Develop a precise scientific approach to replace general guidelines

2. Mgt should scientifically select, train, teach & develop each worker so that the right person is at the right job.

3. Management should cooperate with workers to ensure the jobs match plans & principles

4. Mgt to ensure an appropriate division of work & responsibility between management & worker.

Key Concepts

– Choosing one best way to complete production tasks.

– Emphasized study of tasks, selection & training of workers.

– Cooperation between workers and management.

– systematic analysis of

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