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Without Beginning or End

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Essay title: Without Beginning or End

Running Head: Without Beginning or End

Without Beginning or End

James A. Simpson

National American University

Without Beginning or End

Functions of management are without beginning or end and do not only apply to management. The four main management functions are used by thousands of people everyday without knowing what those functions are or that there is an orderly manner to the use of those functions. I submit that the functions of management are learned and used, but not exclusively at university level institutions. Managerial techniques encompass a variety of styles, thoughts, and beliefs, but four principals have endured: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling.

Planning. To write this paper I had a plan. I thought about it, I wrote down ideas, researched my ideas, and then organized my ideas into an outline to control the reader and lead them into my thoughts about functions of management. This all started with a plan. What is a plan? Planning is “determining what should be done”(Leonard and Hilgert, 2004). Webster’s Dictionary definition says “the act or process of making or carrying out plans; the establishment of goals, policies, and procedures for a social or economic unit” (Merriam-Webster, 1983). I determined what needed to be in the paper. Where did I first learn about planning? At home by observing my parents make plans for vacations, large purchases, and other necessities.

Organizing. “ To arrange or form into a coherent unity or functioning whole”(Merriam-Webster, 1983). To organize my ideas I arranged my ideas into functional groups. Each group has its own central idea followed by subordinate factual information to control the flow and direction of the reader. In a managerial position the same is true. A manager has to organize all-important information into groups and then distribute that information to work teams to ensure the plan is followed and executed. Without a well-organized, pre-determined, arrangement of information my goal of a fun-to-read instructional paper would not have materialized. Where did I learn to organize? In all the leadership positions I’ve held over the years.

Leading. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines leading as “providing direction or guidance”(Merriam-Webster, 1983). Leading is a process of influencing others to move towards goals or visions of the future. In business, leading “is the day-to-day process around which all supervisory performance revolves”(Leonard and Hilgert, 2004). “It is generally believed that effective leadership [leading] requires a mixture of traits and behaviors. Effective leadership [leading] requires intelligence, drive, alertness, and insight regarding the tasks to be performed and the feelings of the persons performing the tasks” (Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991).

Leading is a skill learned from infancy and practiced in all areas of our lives. To continue the example of this paper, I am leading to the conclusion where the functions of management will be tied together. Where did I learn and practice my leadership? In Boy Scouts, the U.S. Navy, and all supervisory positions I’ve held over the years.

Controlling. “Ensuring that actual

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