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Discussion on Higher Education

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Discussion on Higher Education

Discussion on Higher Education

Over the past century, higher education has reformed itself into different styles of learning. There are two basic types of higher education institutions. First are the community colleges, technical colleges, and Jr. colleges. Secondly are the four year colleges and universities. First type of colleges offer programs that are less than 4 years in length. These schools also offer training programs that are two years in length. The different programs in these schools lead to licenses, certificates, and associates degrees in art and science. Furthermore if students want to receive a higher degree, they can transfer to a four year college or university. At the college and university level all programs are at least 4 years in length; nonetheless, can consist of a bachelor arts or bachelor of science degree. If a student wants to attend a even higher level of education they can enroll into a graduate and professional degree programs which can take up to 8 years(Paige 1-2). With the improvement in society involving school , critics have brought forth what higher education has done to different topics that revolves around the subject. With higher education’s involvement into different topics, employment, race, and tuition becomes more talked about by its supporters as well as its critics.

As society progresses, higher education plays a deeper role in the employment side of civilization. The report by George Silvestri shows, “That total employment is projected to increase by 18.6 million jobs over 1996-2006, rising from 132.4 to 150.9 million”(Silvestri 1). As the economy continues to generate more jobs for workers with higher levels of education and training programs, work can still be greater for someone with an associates degree rather than a job requiring training programs(Silvestri 1). The projection by Philip Gardner showed that 47% of respondents from the labor department where willing to hire newly graduated students which shown an 11% increase over the past two years(Philip 2). Also large employers with a staff of over 4500 employees showed to be expected to increase higher ring by 19% at all degree levels (3). Furthermore projection showed 55% of respondents of the labor department would hold salary at the same level while the other 44% would increase salaries on degree holders by 3% to 5%(4). Although many of the college graduate programs earns rewards for their labor market of education not all programs are treated the same(Josipa 1). Graduates that major in female dominate degrees earn lower salaries than graduates who major in male dominate degrees(1). Josipa Roksa’s research finds that “ one year after the class of 2002 graduation from college, students who majored in engineering earned more than $44,000 while those who majored in education earned close to $27,000”(Josipa 2). Showing that improvements have been provided for higher education degree, but not all programs are treated the same when it comes to the salaries supplied.

With the growth of students attending college more ethnic diversity comes into play at all college level schools. A study done by Ernest Pascarella covers 18 four year institutions and also involving the three major races; African American, Hispanic, and caucasian(Pascarella 3). The studies main purpose is to show the impact on the different races while at college(3). Pascarella’s research points out, “ of the 3,331 students involved in the study, 96.3% of African American 90.9% of Hispanic and 91.2% of white students still wanted to earn a graduate degree by their third year”(Pascarella 8). Showing that African American and Hispanic students were less likely than white students of lowering their degree plan(8). Although ethnic races seems to be on the positive, subgroups have begun to form in concern of the importance of higher education(Immerwahr 1). With large numbers of Hispanics and African Americans have become concerned with both access and necessity of higher education(1). Under Immerwahr research he found:

In 2000, colleges got high remarks from African American, which 64% saying that colleges in their state were doing excellent or good job. Today the number has dropped to 35% in 2006.(Immerwahr 1)

Under further research with students race which affects the students outcome, can easily

be limited on the area of attending college(Wood 135). Many American campuses are still

mostly white which will carry this for years to come(135). The area which someone attends school can limit the interaction on campuses life among the many ethnics, even the beneficial outcomes(136). Research done by fellow friends of Wood, Bowen and Derek found, “ that if enrollment in college dropped by 8% to 4% would more likely be seen as a affect on African

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