EssaysForStudent.com - Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes
Search

Experimental Report of Factors Influencing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

By:   •  Research Paper  •  814 Words  •  May 5, 2010  •  913 Views

Page 1 of 4

Experimental Report of Factors Influencing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Factors Influencing Rate of Reaction

Aim

To investigate several effects believed to influence rate of reaction, concentration of a substance and temperature, and observe the effects.

Hypothesis

Concentration and temperature will both increase the rate of reaction in accordance with collision theory.

Introduction

The reaction rate or rate of reaction for a reactant or product in any given reaction can be defined as the speed with which a reaction occurs. For example, the oxidation of iron (rusting) is a slow reaction which can take many years, but explosive combustion, such as the ignition of fuel, can take as little as fractions of a second to complete.

Dealing closely with reaction rates is collision theory. First proposed in 1916, collision theory describes qualitatively how and why chemical reactions occur, and how the rate of reactions differs from reaction to reaction. It theorises that, for a reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide, but only a fraction of the total collisions cause actual transformations of reactant molecules into products. This is because only a fraction of the molecules has sufficient energy and the right orientation at the time of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds.

According to this theory, the two factors which most determine and affect reaction rate are temperature and concentration, the two controllable variables that will be altered and the effects of the changing of which observed in this experiment.

Increase in concentration of reactants increases the collision frequency between the reactants. An increase in temperature not only increases the average speed of the reactant particles, therefore also increasing the number of collisions, but also the fraction of particles having kinetic energy higher than the activation energy. Thus the reaction will occur at a higher rate.

Materials

See pages 425 and 427 of Q Chemistry, experiments 26.3 and 26.4 respectively.

Method

See pages 425 and 427 of Q Chemistry, experiments 26.3 and 26.4 respectively.

Safety

This experiment will be dealing with hazardous chemicals thus safety goggles are a requirement, in addition to closed in footwear. Chemists are also to be reminded that a hotplate will be used to heat the water beaker, thus careful movement is required around experiment apparatus to avoid burn injuries, in addition to careful handling, and disposal of, scalding water. Incorrect safety precautions and not following laboratory procedures can result in some or all of the following; thermal burns, chemical burns (acids), eye damage up to and including permanent blindness and death.

Results

Table 1 – Results of Experiment 26.3

Concentration of acid (mol L-1 ) Amount of Hydrogen ions (mol) Time for magnesium to disappear (s) Rate (1/s)

2 0.04 47 0.0212

1 0.02 94 0.0106

0.5 0.01 191 0.0052

Table 2 – Results of Experiment 26.4

Temperature (Degrees Celsius) Time (s) Rate (s-1)

25.5 841 0.0012

51 161 0.0062

61 88 0.011

73 48 0.021

Analysis

The

Continue for 3 more pages »  •  Join now to read essay Experimental Report of Factors Influencing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Download as (for upgraded members)
txt
pdf