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German Unification

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German Unification

German Unification

  1. Germany in 1815
  1. Impact of Napoleon
  1. French inspired legal and political change, as well as ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity
  2. small states combined into larger territories which belonged to the Confederation of the Rhine
  3. Released from feudal systems, middle class in government
  1. Congress of Vienna
  1. Rivalry between Austria and Prussia prevented German unification, “peaceful dualism”
  2. Prussia gained multiple states (Saxony, Rhinelands, Westphalia, etc) and became a major power in north Germany
  3. Austrians controlled German Confederation of 39 states
  1. State of German Nationalism
  1. Germans from all states shared language, history, and culture (not religion: North was protestant, South was Catholic)
  2. National hatred towards French
  3. Limited readership of nationalistic ideas in books and pamphlets
  1. Development of nationalistic and liberal ideas 1815 – 48
  1. Liberalism, nationalism, and repression
  1. Federal Act (Congress of Vienna) wanted constitutions from all states, results varied. Formed local diets (Reichstag) which legislated decisions of states
  2. Burschenschaften societies campaigned for a united Germany, joined by numerous students (Wartburg, Hambach, etc festivals – meeting of nationalists)
  3. Liberals and Nationalists were almost one and the same at that time
  4. Karlsbad Decrees – limited political activity of scholars and imposed tighter censorship
  1. Six Acts – tightened control of public gatherings, gave princes power to resist ‘acts’ against legitimacy
  1. Young Germany (like Young Italy)
  1. Liberal Development 1848
  1. William IV was a mix of liberal and conservatism (he was on coins! :3)Stuck due to Austrian Power
  1. German Economic Development pre – 1850
  1. Prussian Customs Union
  1. Removed trade barrios between states, increased market for goods
  2. Zollverein – German Customs Unit, dismantled all custom barriers and unified measurements and currency
  1. Railways and Industry
  1. Massive increase of rail by 1850 (~4k miles)
  2. Industrialization mostly from Prussia, and resulted in a growth of middle class supporters of unity (but level of industrialization was not very extensive)

  1. Impact of 1848 – 9 Revolutions
  1. Causes and Main events
  1. Increase of German population, high feudal dues, lack of middle-class power, increasing appeal of liberalism, French revolution (1848) “legitimate movements for the growth of people’s nationalities” – Lamartine
  2. Frankfurt Parliament
  1. Elected national parliament (YES!) that wasn’t actually representative of the population (Aw )
  2. Decided the type of political system and territories that would be Germany (Austrian Catholic proposal denied due to cultural differences)
  3. Fifty articles of fundamental rights (basically napoleons ideas), December 1848
  1. Revolution in Prussia (Berlin), William agreed to liberty and unity, thought unhappy with it
  2. New Prussian parliament dissolved by William (his uncle Brandenburg really) due to failure to form a constitution – December 1848
  3. William then proceeds to form his own constitution
  1. Failure of Revolution
  1. Division of revolutionaries over social and national issues, and the constitution
  2. Lack of army, failure to overthrown existing powers
  1. Main Developments in Prussia between 1849 – 1862
  1. Prussian Union Plan
  1. Aimed to unite Germany under William IV
  2. Austrians, after finishing with Hungarian uprisings, returned to reaffirm position in Germany
  3. Prussian backed down before armed conflict, Erfurt Union was abolished in Nov. 1850
  1. Nature and Consequences of Constitutional crisis 1860 – 2
  1. General Voon wished to increase Prussian Army size, this would’ve doubled military spending
  2. Fear of army becoming a force of repression, Liberals were against William I (King after William IV went insane) Parliament rejected bill 3 times, and after being dissolved twice (This was fixed later when Bismarck just did what he wanted)
  1. Bismarck and German Unification
  1. Bismarck’s Aims
  1. “The end justified the means “(Lelouch) main aim was to have Northern Germany rather than full unity
  2. 1858 “Nothing more German than then development of Prussia’s particular interests” (legit)
  3. Wanted a super O.P. Prussia via diplomacy
  1. Prussian army, economy, Zollverein, and Germany Nationalism’s Contributions to Unification
  1. Unification the result of 3 wars (Denmark, Austria, and France)
  2. Economic strength gave resources for military
  3. Prussian overruled the economic side of the Zollverein, though many states were politically with Austria
  4. German nationalism was strongest in fear of French expansionism, Bismarck used this well
  1. Austria excluded from German Politics 1863 – 1866
  1. Schleswig-Holstein crisis 1864 (Danish War)
  1. Death of Frederick VII (1863), Schleswig-Holstein wanted new leader to be Duke of Augustenburg
  2. Bismarck used this to annex the two duchies, with Austrian help, Denmark surrendered
  1. Results of Danish War
  1. Treaty of Vienna (1864), King of Denmark gave up rights to S-H
  2. Convention off Gastein (1865) gave Prussia S’ and Austria H’, this led to possible open confrontations with Austria over German Leadership
  3. Napoleon III took a stance back after conference with Bismarck due to anti-Austrian stance and lack of reward from the fight between the two German powers
  1. Prussian Gaining Control Over North Germany
  1. Bismarck Preparing for War with Austria
  1. Fight over control of Germany
  2. April 1866, Prussian allies with Italy for Venetia (3 month standing period), then Bismarck provoked Austria and mobilised forces
  1. Treaty of Prague and Plans for Peace
  1. Austria agreed to giving up Holstein, as well as Hanover, Nassau, Frankfurt, and Hesse-Cassel
  2. German Confederation  North German Confederation of states north of the river
  3. Venetia given to Italy
  1. Surrender of Prussian Liberals
  1. Success of Bismarck’s policies and war fever resulted in much more support, especially from the National Liberal Party
  2. Peace between Bismarck and Prussian Parliment
  1. Prussian control of North German Confederation
  1. Consitutional, where King William I was President, a federal system was enforced, and upper and lower house system
  1. The Why and Consequences of Franco-Prussian War 1870
  1. Franco Prussian Relation following war with Austria
  1. Napoleon wanted Luxemburg to reinstate control over Prussia, but it’s declared neutral by great powers due to Prussian (Bismarck’s) appeals
  1. Hohenzollern Candidature
  1. 1868, Spanish want new king after revolution, requests Prince Leopold
  2. Bismarck supports Leopold and persuades him to accept
  3. William I withdrew Leopold after French outrage (surrounded on all sides)
  1. Bismarck’s Role in the Confrontation
  1. Napoleon wanted William to remove support for the candidature forever, thus the meeting between William and Benedetti at Bad Ems (13, july), and the conversation was edited by Bismarck to provoke the French
  2. French declares war, Bismarck uses this to unite North and South Germany
  1. Consequences of the war and the German Empire
  1. Harsh peace terms on France
  1. France became a permanent enemy, thus they insured that no threat would come from her (5 billion francs (1/5 billion pounds))
  2. French gave up Metz and Strasbourg, as well as Alsace and Lorraine (Rich in iron)
  3. German population, viewing France as aggressor, was more satisfied with the punishments
  1. War with France turned German states into a patriotic conglomerate
  2. Bismarck carried through with Northern German Confederation via political skill, bribes, and symbolic acts
  3. Bismarck becomes imperial chancellor, William I the Kaiser of the German Reich (in Versailles XD)

 

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