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Philosophy

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Philosophy

when s/he concentrates on an object he likes. It gives him/her a useful exercises with control of error (Montessori, 2007 a) (reference Montessori 2007a). To establish discipline in a work we must first apply the method in which work has to be done. It is prepared in a series of action one after the other, through the work done by a child with her/his own hands on real objects. (Reference Montessori 2002). A child learns a lot of things through the environment around him/her. The teacher makes a favorable environment to make it easy for the child to learn and explore things freely. A favorable environment is an ideal and safe place for the child's needs to be fulfilled. Montessori believed that a childs home was not a favorable place because s/he would not get the freedom or independence to develop naturally. The child develops her/himself through a natural environment of learning through his/her own hands which will also develop her/his motor skill. He engages himself in everyday activities like washing dishes or setting a table. These activities of everyday will make him confident and independent. For the child to learn with freedom, he should be able to approach the materials her/himself and not wait for the teacher to give him. (Reference Montessori, 2007 b).The ideal aspect of a physical environment in a nursery is to make it look like a real home. It should have a room with all Montessori Materials (MCI) placed in small child size cupboards or shelves. The wall of the room should be light in color and pictures of the child doing his/her activity or the child's work should be displayed .The tables and the chairs used should be of different shapes and color and most important light in weight so that the child can move them independently. There should be a dining room with a child size washing area where a child can wash her/his hand or dishes. There should be easy accesses to a garden with shelter where a child can plant (Reference Montessori, 2007 b). It is the teacher's duty to make the rooms look neat, beautiful and clear of any obstacles for the child to grow naturally. Another aspect is the spiritual environment in which order is given a special importance. Order helps the child to be organized physically and mentally. The organization of a class room should help the child's need for order as s/he shows in her/his sensitive period of order (Montessori 1972). In a classroom where things are in order the child can carry out his activities without the support of the teacher, thus increasing her/his self-confidence. Vertical grouping or mixed age also helps a lot of learning in a favorable environment. Children have a tendency to learn more from each other. A young child learns a lot of things from the older child just by observing. (Reference Montessori, 2007 a, b).With freedom to move and repetition of activities in a favorable environment the child leads to develop his/her self-confidence. Freedom to develop is the main foundation of Montessori education. A child's physiological and psychological growth depends upon the freedom given to him/her. It is the teacher who plays an important role in giving the freedom to a child. She has to remove all the obstacles and assist the child. When the child is given the freedom to make his own choice without the interference of an adult, he will be a calm, happy child and not destructive. (Reference Montessori, 2007, b). '' Therefore, when we speak of the freedom of a small child , we do not mean to countenance the external disorderly actions which children left to themselves engage in as a relief from their aimless activity , but we understand by this the freeing of his life from the obstacles which can impede his normal development.'' (Montessori,2007b,p. 63). As the child matures with freedom he is more self-disciplined and will be confident in taking decision about this work and the way he enacts with others. Freedom with ground rules in a favorable environment enables the child to keep him busy in a social life of activities without quarrelling with the other child. (Reference Montessori, 2007a). A child is not born with memory, will, or knowledge .It has to be formed. In the first year of a child from one to six years the child grows and has a very good power to absorb things. Montessori states it as Absorbent Mind (Montessori, 2007 a) .A child absorbs a lot of things from the surrounding which he keeps in his/her memory unconsciously. Whatever the child absorbs is stored in nmeme (Montessori, 2007 a) (the unconscious memory) and it helps the child in future learning. (reference Montessori,2007 a).From the age of 0 to 3 years a child in his/her unconscious stage of mind , learns to develop through his environment .The unconscious mind helps the child to absorb information and develop physically like walking and talking. This is his /her spiritual embryo stage (Montessori, 1972) where the family

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