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Management Principles

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Motivation is defined as ‘the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organisational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need’. People differs not only the ability to do but also in their will to do; their motivation, will depend on the strength of their inner motives.

Motives are sometimes defined as need, wants, drives, desires and impulses within the individual. Motives, which may be conscious or unconscious, are directed towards goals. Motives are the main spring of action, for example achievement demonstrated by subordinates depend as much on their motivation as on their abilities to perform the task assigned to them.

This report analyses is based on two motivation theories to show how they are being used to create and sustain a positive environment in the workplace (Heller & Hindle 1998, p.289). The two theories used in this report are: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

2. Discussion

As management guru, Peter F. Drucker observed, managers played key roles in influencing their employees’ behavior. It is their responsibility to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. If managers can motivate their employees successfully, they can expect to see improved employees’ performance, low staff turnover rate, high morale and increased productivity (Grensing 1991).

People are motivated when they are given positive responses, given recognition, provided with good working condition, praised, trusted, etc.

Content theories of motivation helps managers to understand their employees’ needs and know what are the things that motivate them.

2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Theory is one of the most popular theory on what motivates an individual to behave in certain ways. Maslow viewed human behaviors as a hierarchy of needs, classified in five distinct categories:- Physiological needs, Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem needs and Self-Actualization needs. (Mullins 1985, p.303)

These needs are arranged in hierarchical levels, comprising of lower-order needs and higher-order needs. Lower-order needs include Physiological, Safety and Social needs. Higher-order needs are Esteem and Self-actualization. It is also recognized that lower-order needs are fulfilled before motivation is directed towards the satisfaction of higher-order

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