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Midterm Review

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Chapter 3

  1. The degree of motivation that accompanies an external search is determined by the​ consumer's _______. level of​ involvement, need for​ cognition, and level of shopping enthusiasm
  2. What is the first step of the buying​ decision-making process? The consumer experiences a need or want.
  3. A key marketing communications objective related to an internal search is to ensure​ __________.that a​ company's brand becomes part of the​ consumer's set of potential purchase alternatives
  4. Which of the following statements is true regarding time spent in the external search​ process? Individuals with no knowledge of the product category will spend less time.    
  5. What are the three models of the information search process that marketing experts​ use? Attitudes, values, and cognitive mapping
  6. In what order do events take place in attitude formation about a​ product? CognitiveAffectiveConative
  7. Advertisements and other marketing communications can first appeal to the emotions or feelings held by consumers in order to move them to​ "like" a product and make the purchase. This is what component of attitude​ formation? Conative
  8. In the evoked set​ method, the inept set contains brands that​ ________________. are a part of a​ person's memory that are not considered because they elicit negative feelings.
  9. The​ _________________________ concept suggests that consumers choose brands they like the best or the ones with which they have emotional connections. affect referral
  10. What does age complexity mean in consumer buying​ trends? Children are growing up at a much earlier age and​ middle-aged adults apparently do not want to age.
  11. What are​ "second chancers"? Divorced people who focus more on seeking a fuller life.
  12. How have emerging technologies changed the way consumers communicate about​ brands? ​Word-of-mouth communication has a much bigger impact.
  13. What is an​ "influencer" in a buying​ center? People who shape decisions by providing information
  14. Who are​ "gatekeepers" in buying​ centers? People who control the flow of information to members of the buying center
  15. What are some of the complexities of determining roles in a​ customer's buying​ center? Roles often overlap and are not fixed and formal.
  16. In addition to​ personality, roles,​ motivation, level of​ power, and levels of cognitive​ involvement, what are the two additional factors that affect each member of the business buying​ center? Risk and personal objectives
  17. A buying center member who is influenced by his or her own level of cognitive involvement would be someone who​needs______. a lot of information prior to making a decision
  18. What is the difference between a straight rebuy and a modified​ rebuy? A straight rebuy is a simple​ restocking, whereas a modified rebuy involves comparisons with alternatives.
  19. What type of​ business-to-business sale is most likely to occur with​ large, infrequent​ purchases? A modified rebuy
  20. What event can force bids for a​ purchase? End of a contractual agreement
  21. What affects derived demand for product purchases by​ businesses? A recession
  22. What must precede a request for bids for a purchasing​ situation? Identification of vendors
  23. When might a company consider dual channel​ marketing? When a product lends itself to both business and consumer sales
  24. What are​ spin-off sales? When a​ consumer's work purchases lead to personal sales
  25. When is a cultural assimilator​ needed? As a member of an international marketing project

Chapter 4

  1. What key insights can be determined by marketing​ research? How products are​ used, when they are​ used, and why they are used
  2. What are the primary marketing research​ approaches? ​Product-specific, consumer-oriented, and​ target-market
  3. What is product specific​ research? It identifies key product characteristics that become selling points.
  4. Which of the following is an approach to gain understanding of a​ client's customers by gathering them together to discuss a​product? Focus group
  5. The type of segmentation which is based on a​ person's activities,​ interests, and opinions is known as​ ______________ segmentation. psychographic
  6. In order for a market segment to be​ viable, it should be distinct from other segments and from the general​ population, but those within the segment should be​ ____________. Homogenous
  7. What demographics are often used for market​ segmentation? ​Gender, age,​ education, income, and ethnicity
  8. What are​ psychographics? Measures that emerge from patterns of responses that reveal a​ person's activities,​ interests, and opinions
  9. Which type of segmentation focuses on life events that create an impact on social​ values, attitudes, and​ preferences, leading to common preferences for​ music, foods, and other​ products? Generational
  10. Geodemographic segmentation is achieved by combining​ demographic, geographic, and​ _____________ information. Psychographic
  11. What is the primary goal of​ business-to-business market​ segmentation? To group similar organizations into meaningful clusters in order to provide better service
  12. How might a marketing approach differ based on the size of the target​ prospect? A large prospect would typically have a sales team​ on-site, whereas a small prospect would have a less expensive approach such as email and telemarketing.
  13. How might segmentation by geographic location work​ effectively? Target a few large businesses in an​ area, gather​ testimonials, and then market to smaller regional businesses.T
  14. Which two elements of product positioning typically stand out in the​ consumer's mind? Customer perceptions of the product and the​ product's standing relative to the competition
  15. What is typically the best technique for positioning​ strategies? Use one approach.
  16. What is application​ positioning? Positioning that involves creating a memorable set of uses for a product.
  17. Which of the following is important in international​ positioning? The​ company's overall theme and the brand image should stay as consistent as possible for each country.
  18. What is a benchmark​ measure? It represents the starting point that has been established in relation to the degree of change following a promotional campaign.
  19. How can you know if marketing communication objectives are being​ met? Take a benchmark​ measurement, run a​ campaign, and then measure again.
  20. How is a communications budget set using the​ percentage-of-sales budget​ method? Allocations are derived from either sales from the previous year or anticipated sales for the next year.
  21. What do many marketing experts believe is the best budgeting​ method? ​Objective-and-task
  22. Which budgeting method provides more money for newer​ products? ​Payout-planning
  23. What is the marketing communication schedule that spends only during peak​ times? Flighting
  24. The goal of a globally integrated marketing communications​ (GIMC) program should include all of the following​ EXCEPT: developing a unique program for each country.
  25. Which media typically receives the most global advertising​ spending? Television

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