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Ap Euro Reading Questions for Revolutions of 1848, and Ideologies

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How was the peace restored and maintained after 1815? P.684

In 1815, Europe was in a chaotic state because of the course of the Napoleonic wars. Thus, the European countries needed to find a way to maintain peace within the countries. So, they founded the idea of peace on the principle that no single states can dominate Europe ever again, especially not France. The countries involved: Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain, also known as the quadruple alliance, decided to start searching for a way to hold France in line. The quadruple alliance had to create a number of new barriers against the french aggression. Thus, due to the country's’ self interest, traditional ideas, and views on balance of power, motivated the new and allied moderation toward France. Looking for ways to restore peace, these countries agreed to meet at Congress of Vienna to construct a lasting settlement that would ensure no war. At the Congress of Vienna, the country’s agreed that each country involved in the Napoleonic war would receive compensation in the form of territory. Therefore, Austria gave up territories in Belgium and Southern Germany, and took Venetia, Lombardy, Polish territories, and land near the Adriatic in exchange. Russia received a small kingdom from Poland, and Prussia took a part of Saxony. Now that fair agreements were reached by the country’s, they needed to find a way to maintain this peace amongst themselves. This emerged the new idea of a “congress system” between the countries which was a System that could create solutions through a conservative approach and it would uphold a balance of power. All countries agreed to give lenient terms towards France after napoleon's abdication in fear of an act of vengeance. Thus, the Treaty of Paris in 1792 gave France more boundaries than they had previously, also, the countries did not forced France to pay war reparations. Klemens Von Metternich, Diplomat of Austria, believed that in order to maintain peace, the country must follow the conservative movement. This idea was supported with evidence from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, and it also supported the idea of autocracies. Later, other countries like Russia and the Ottoman empire began emulating Metternich by holding back liberalism and nationalism within their country. This upheld idea of conservatism by the autocracy formed a bond between the Holy Alliance which consisted from Austria, Prussia, and Russia, the defenders of conservatism. The Austrian and Prussian leadership followed through by using the diet to issue and enforce karlsbad decrees of 1819 which required that german states outlaw liberal groups, monitor freedom of speech, and send out spies which demonstrated the countries attempt to repress liberals. For example, in St. Petersburg Russia, on December 25, a group of 3,000 liberal officers began to protest against Tsar Nicholas 1. However, through military strength, secret police, imprisonment, execution, and harsh consequence, the Tsar was able to maintain conservative ways in Russia. Overall, the new Congress system was successful because France needed to pay for the actions of Napoleon, legal framework became the duty of diplomats rather than kings, between states, and because of the new economic view which voiced that industry and commerce would benefit all states and not one at the expense of the other.

What new ideologies emerged to challenge conservatism? P.690

In the 18th centuries, new political ideologies began to spark due to the revolutionary era, and the people’s desire for a new type of rule. These ideologies were: Liberalism, Nationalism, Socialism, and Marxism all of which challenged the traditional way of conservatism immensely. Liberalism was the idea that politics should consist of liberty and equality. It arose in favor of the middle and upper classes and advocated for a representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, and equality before the law versus legally separated classes. Liberalism voiced for many new freedoms including individual freedom, freedom of press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest. France, with the Constitutional Charter signed by louis 18th and England Parliament demonstrated great success for the liberalism ideology. Liberal economic principles emerged such as laissez faire which also advocated for free trade, unrestricted private enterprise, and no government interference in economy. Adam Smith wrote about this new idea of free market capitalism in 1776 which opposed mercantilism and the attempt to regulate trade and went against conservatism. Soon, labor unions were outlawed because the elites said unions would restrict free competition and the right to work. The liberals wanted property qualifications, and soon earned the right to vote. Secondly, Nationalism emerged and

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