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Earth and Atmospheric Science

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Earth and Atmosphere Science

Name: Joshua Maria

ID: UNI-1896-2018

Environmental Science Year 1

Coastal erosion processes.

Erosion occur when physical material such as rock and sediments are relocated by the impacts of wind, water (wave, current, tides), Ice, or gravity. During a coastal erosion the rough waves action produced be the sea and strong wind are forced against the cliffs causing air compression in the joins of the rocks which cause it to crack and break off, this proses is called as hydraulic action. Afterword the felon rocks are pulled back into sea by the strong current causing them to collide and break each other apart, called as attrition proses.

Differences between oceanic & continental crust and how they are different.

The earth is made up of deferent layers the upper part recognised as the crust is classify two parts oceanic and continental. The youngest layer known as the oceanic crust which is approximately 5 to 10 kilometres thick and mostly made up of basal, by means of making the ocean salty and denser because of the higher level of water. The other part known as older layer is called as the continental crust, it is approximately 30-50 kilometres thinker and mostly made up of Granit and less dense than the oceanic crust because it does not have a huge level of water above it. They are both solid crust located over the tectonic plates and are less dense than the mantle layer.

Ecological limiting factors that affect the growth of corals.

Corals are existing organisms that belongs to phylum cnidarian. It consist of Polyps that secrete calcium carbonate that to from the coral structure and habited by an algae named as zooxanthellae, which has the pigment to determine colours of the corals, photosynthesis and manufacture the food, whereas the polyps proved shelter and a secure place for the algae to grow. The factors that limits the coral reefs are Salinity, which should be nearly from 32 to 42 ppt (parts per thousand) of salt and the ocean turning more acidic base on the large amount of carbon-dioxide that are being released into the atmosphere affects the corals. Global warming which warms up the ocean by causing the ice at the north and south poles to melt more rapidly and increasing the depth of the sea level, as well as Temperature rises. Climate change cause the temperate to rise or fall at a certain degree that leads to coral bleaching such as the el nino event, most corals are more likely to live in temperatures that range between 23 to 29 degrees Celsius. Lastly, Light is one the most import factor which allow the corals to grow and its can be affect sediment folds that prevents sun light from penetrating the sea which produce cloudy waters, and algae bloom that can also shorten the supply of oxygen causing the corals to suffocate.

What determines the amount of sand deposited on a beach?

The amount of sand available to beaches is the amount of sand flowing into the littoral cell minus the amount flowing out (Upwelling and down welling). A littoral cell can be defined as the distinct area of a coastline where sand enters the ocean, flows down the coast, and is then removed by the system. The budget deficit in a littoral cell should be maintained otherwise if this amount is altered; beaches can narrow or even disappear.


Seagrass Vs Seaweed (Macro algae)

  • Seagrass have separate sexes; that is they produce flowers, fruits and seeds while macro algae produce spores.
  • Seagrass evolved from terrestrial plants and have tissues that are specialized for certain tasks; that is they have roots, leaves and underground stems called rhizomes that hold plants in place. Macro algae are relatively simple and unspecialized. Holdfast anchors the plants to a hard surface since they do not have roots extending below the surface.
  • Seagrass use roots and rhizomes to extract nutrients from the sediment and leaves for extracting nutrients from water while macro algae use diffusion to extract nutrients from the water.

Reasons for Restoring a Coastal Ecosystem.

  • To return an area to a baseline condition; for instance a particular vegetative community that existed before an injurious accident such as an oil spill
  • To improve the biological value of an area to compensate for a specific loss elsewhere (mitigation)
  • Habitat creation; the establishment of a habitat type in a location where it did not previously exist

How the effects of climate change will impact mangrove ecosystems.

Climate change is likely to have a significant impact on mangrove ecosystems. One of the ways climate change is likely to impact the mangrove ecosystem is through a sea level rise (SLR). Increases in flooding duration can lead to plant death at the seaward mangrove margins as well as shifts in species composition ultimately leading to a reduction in productivity and ecosystem services.

1. Describe the internal structure of the Earth

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