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Disaster Management Process Cycle

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1.0 Explanation of Disaster Management Process Cycle.

2.0 Roles and responsibilities of the Government in implementing actions and monitoring the activities of disaster management.

3.0 Discussion on possible emergency at workplace.

4.0 Discussion on the importance of establishing warning system.



1.0 Explanation of Disaster Management Process Cycle  

One of the common disasters that occur in Malaysia is flood. According to Malaysian Meteorological Department (MET Malaysia), northeast monsoon occurs between early November to end of March every year (“Malaysia - Malaysian Meteorological Department,” n.d.).  During that duration, areas located at northeast of Malaysia are expected to flood (see Figure 1.1). However, an unprecedented event occurred. Penang was affected by this phenomenon as reported by The Malay Mail Online (Mok, 2017). There are several factors that may cause flood such as river overflow or dam breaking. The flood that usually happens in Malaysia are due to heavy rain carried by strong winds.

[pic 1]

Figure 1.1: Shows monsoon from northeast due to strong winds. Image taken from MET Malaysia.

The unprecedented event was overcome by deploying every rescue department involved in assisting civilians that require assistance. Based on the Malay Mail Online article (Mok, 2017) Malaysian Civil Defense Force (JPAM), the Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM) and Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department (JBPM) were called on to help. Penang Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng were responsible for expediting the evacuating process to ensure that all lives were saved. As the head of Floods Operation Center Lim Guan Eng have also requested extra assistance from neighboring state such as Sungai Petani, Kedah.


Other than that, other organizations such as State Welfare, Caring Society and Environment Committee play the role of giving moral support to the victims and also to track their well-being while in shelter. With support from various parties, it was their priority to keep the casualties at the minimum and save as many lives as possible.


Every organizations and government agencies executed their functions easily by referring to the guidelines that exist. These guidelines were created to facilitate matters based on previous disasters that happened in the past years. One of the guidelines that is widely observed is based on the disaster management process cycle.

Disaster management process cycle consist of four elements which are mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery (see Figure 1.2). The circular flow indicates that the process is a continuous operation that involves government agencies and other organizations that will take part during and after a disaster happened.

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Figure 1.2: Flow of the disaster management process cycle

2.0 Roles and responsibilities of the Government in implementing actions and monitoring the activities of disaster management.

At the top of the disaster management process cycle is mitigation. It is an element in the cycle that strives to avert possible disaster, or if a disaster is inevitable, attempt to reduce the severity of the effects of a disaster. In order for mitigation to perform well, a hazard risk analysis is conducted to identify hazards and threats that exist. By doing this, organizations such as government departments and agencies may use the findings to minimize the chances of a disaster to take place. Even if a disaster or an event is bound to happen, a well-informed person or company might decrease the negative effect of a disaster. Mitigation activities take place continuously and periodically before a disaster strike to remind people the next steps of a disaster management cycle and avoid any confusion that may hinder a continuous flow. Some of the mitigation activities are as follows:

  • Controlled development in flood prone area. Avoid building houses or skyscrapers in an area that is known to flood seasonally. This is to ensure that the occupants are not trapped in a flood and increase their chances of drowning or building collapsing due to weak structure.
  • Public awareness to educate people on risky behaviors that could contribute to a disaster. For example, a public service announcement on the dangers of open burning to the air quality.

After mitigation is preparedness. Just like mitigation, preparedness is an element in the cycle that takes place before a disaster strikes. This is the part of the disaster management cycle where the information from the previous step determines it. Organization responsible for it are tasked to prepare and anticipate in advance to ensure the safety of the lives and belongings under their care. As a result, a plan that is able to assist a person or a group of people recover during emergency is created. Examples of preparation plans that may assist during disaster are as follows:

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