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Information Systems and Technology

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An Information System (IS) is defined as “a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective” (Stair & Reynolds, 2006). This feedback mechanism is used by organizations, which enables organizations to achieve specific goals such as increasing profit margins and/or improving customer service. Information systems consist of four components which are input, processing, output, and feedback. In this paper, the accuracy of and the method of data input for certain situations, the convenience and quality and the method of output for certain situations, the different types of storage devices and how these devices are optimal for different situations, and the role of chosen devices in determining the speed of a computer is explained.

Method of Data Input

The accuracy of data input into an information system is very important. Data is raw facts entered into an information system, which, when these facts are brought together to add value, becomes information. For example, an employer’s name, hours worked, and job title entered into a system becomes valuable information to a manager when it is pay day for the employer. If the data is not accurately entered into the system, the data becomes useless. There are different methods used for data input in different situations. A good method to use when requiring data input for printed questionnaires is by using a scanning device called an optical data reader which in turn uses optical mark recognition forms, which are also called mark sense forms. Using these forms for printed questionnaires enables accurate census taking by just scanning the forms. In this process, there is no room for human error and the results are accurate. In a situation such as taking a telephone survey, methods using voice recognition devices are used. This type of input device recognizes human speech, records, and converts the human voice into digital signals. In order to input data from bank checks into a banking system, Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Devices are used to read the MICR data placed at the bottom of checks that enables speedy check clearing processes. In a situation that inputs data using retail tags, point-of-sales devices are used such as keyboards, bar-code readers, printers, and screens. The sales information is entered into the system and the POS system calculates the total. Lastly, when dealing with long documents, the best method to use to input data is optical character recognition, which uses an optical character reader to convert handwritten or typed documents into digital data.

Method of Output

The convenience and quality of output from an information system are also important. In a situation such as finding the address or location to an appointed destination, using a hand held computer gives the convenient and quality output needed. The method of output that would be best for the convenient and quality output of a color photograph would be the use of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED) because OLEDs provide sharper and brighter colors. The method of output that would be best for a resume and a memorandum would be printer, which is set up to accommodate different paper forms. The output device that would be a better method to use for output of a statistical report is called plotters, which are used for design work. Lastly, the method of output best for a company’s annual report would be liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. LCD allows more information to be view in the screen a one time.

Types of Storage Devices

Different types of storage devices

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