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Ch.23 Study Guide

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Essay title: Ch.23 Study Guide

I.

1.Miguel Angel Asturias- A Nobel Prize wining novelist and poet from Guatemala. Wrote about his experience under a dictatorship. Established small-town life and a clash of cultures as themes

2.Frida Kahlo- Started painting in 1925 when she was hospitalized. Married Diego Rivera. Was inspired by retablos, religious paintings. Was a champion of Mexican culture.

3.John F. Kennedy В– Kennedy encouraged Latin American countries to undertake reforms to raise the standard of living for their people with the Alliance for Progress in 1961.

4.Luis Munoz Marin В– Became Puerto Rico's first elected governor in the 1950s. He supported a program to encourage tourism and develop industry on the island.

5.Gabriel Garcia Marquez- Nobel Prize winning author in Columbia. Wrote in a Style called magical realism. Most popular novel was One Hundred years of Solitude.

6.James Munroe В– Issued the Munroe Doctrine in 1823 which disallowed colonization in the Americas

7.Pablo Neruda - Chile's Nobel Prize winning poet who criticized the United States for using its power and wealth to carve up Panama.

8.Manuel Noriega В– Panama's president who was charged by the United States with drug trafficking in 1988.

9.Franklin D. Roosevelt В– Announced the Good Neighbor Policy in 1933, which declared that "no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another state."

10.Theodore Roosevelt В– President that offered Columbia $10 million for a strip of land in Panama to build a canal. Roosevelt encouraged rebels in Panama to rebel when Columbia rejected the offer. In 1903 when the Panama people received their independence, they granted US the 10 mile wide "canal zone."

II.

1. Under the Platt Amendment, the United States claimed the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.

2. The United States gained Puerto Rico and Philippines from Spain.

3. Financial interests led the United States to intervene in Latin America. In the early 1900s, the Dominican Republic was unable to pay its debts to American banks. American forces also occupied Nicaragua and Haiti ,and intervened in the affairs of Honduras 6 times. In each case, they stepped in to protect American lives and property or to support a government that favored American interests.

4. The United States wanted to create a solid anti-communist bloc in the Americas. The United States' primary concern was the communist country of Cuba.

5. Guatemala(1950), Cuba(1960s), Dominican Republic(1965), Grendada(1983), Panama(1989) and Chile(1970s).

6. The United States influenced the Latin American governments to adopt democratic and republic styles of government and helped them fight the communist leftists, rightists and rebels.

7. Until the 1950s Puerto Rico's economy depended on a single crop, sugar. A program to encourage tourism and develop industry on the island was called Operation Bootstrap. Hundreds of American companies set up factories to produce shoes, clothing, chemicals, and electronics.

8. Because many Latin American nations are relatively small , they have limited national markets for their goods. During the 1960s and 1970s , some nations organizations, they created larger markets for the sale of their products.

9. It was set up in 1948 to help members settle disputes through peaceful means, discourage foreign intervention in the region, and promote economic development and democracy.

10. Most Latin American countries have borrowed heavily from foreign banks and governments. During the 1980s interest rates rose and the world economy slowed.

11. Banks lowered interest rates and extended the repayment period. They also canceled some debt in exchange for the ownership of local companies. In "debt-for-nature swaps," foreign leaders agreed to cancel a small part of a nation's debt if it agreed to support local conservation projects.

12. Latin Americans view the drug trade as an international problem that cannot simply solved by eliminating the farmers. The Latin American farmers also view the drug trade as simply another cash crop that disfavorably looked upon by the rest of the world.

13. In Latin America the population explosion and the need to develop resources threatened natural environments. They have : harvested lumber from the rainforest, cut strip mines in wilderness areas, over-fished coastal waters, and air pollution endangers people's health in crowded urban areas.

14. The turmoil of the 1960s and 1970s led to

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