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Civil Liberties and the Civil War

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Essay title: Civil Liberties and the Civil War

"On to Richmond" was the enthusiastic battle cry of the Union Soldiers as they went into battle. With the apparent disagreements between the Northern and Southern states, war was inevitable. The drastic differences in location, economy, and population played prevalent roles in the outcome of the war. The Civil War was surprisingly drawn out considering the North's overwhelming advantages, which eventually led them to victory.

One of the most important advantages the North had was money; they were better able to finance the war. The North was far superior in industry, making them more able to produce the necessary materials to provide for a war. The North also had control of the U.S. Navy, using this advantage to blockade the South from outside sources of supplies. In addition to better economic sources, the North's population superceded the South's by three to one, One third of the South's population being African American.

Though it seemed that the North would take a hasty victory over the South, the South had advantages of its own. The South was on the defensive; it only had to resist being conquered, made easier by the South's expansive size. The troops would also be on their own territory commanded by experienced officers such as Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and Albert Johnston. The North often had inferior commanders while Lincoln experimented with generals. Jefferson Davis also seemed to have advantages over Lincoln. He had an extensive military background as well as a lot of political experience. Lincoln, on the other hand, had little political and military experience, but somehow managed to prove himself a better war leader than Davis. These advantages caused the war to be drawn out, as the South struggled to stay in the war

After the first battle of Bull Run in July 21, 1861, the North was forced to retreat. This battle revealed the lack of experience and organization of both sides . Winfield Scott came up with a strategy for Lincoln's union forces called the Anaconda Plan. The first part of the plan involved a naval blockade, which turned out to be difficult considering the large coastline. Under the secretary of Navy, Gideon Welles, the navy was expanded and became increasingly effective. The next part of Welles' plan included a campaign to take the Mississippi, which Lincoln ordered. Lincoln also wanted to raise a large enough army to apply pressure from all sides hoping to collapse the confederacy. Once naval forces under Captain David Farragat captured New Orleans in April 1862, Lincoln's plan was well underway.

The Union was very successful in the West under the aggressive Ulysses S. Grant, who planned to take the two confederate strongholds of Fort Henry and Donelson. He succeeded in February 1862. With the capture of New Orleans as well as other northern victories the Union had almost total control of the Mississippi River, aside from a 110-mile stretch.

As the war lingered on, the necessary finances became difficult to come by for both the North and South. The North had a variety of ways to deal with the problem. The Homestead Act was passed which granted an individual 160 acres of government land at no cost if they promised to farm it for

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