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History of California to 1899

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Essay title: History of California to 1899

History of California to 1899

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History of California

To 1899

Gold Rush (1848)

American Civil War



Since 1900





Los Angeles


San Diego

San Francisco

San Jose

California's Yosemite Valley.

This article covers in brief the history of California until the year 1899; for later events, see History of California 1900 to present. For additional information and more notes and citations, see the Main article links at the top of most sections.

Human history in California begins with indigenous Americans first arriving in California some 13,000-15,000 years ago. Exploration and settlement by Europeans along the coasts and in the inland valleys began in the 16th century. California's acquisition by the United States under the terms of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the defeat of Mexico in the Mexican-American War caused further American westward expansion into Mexico intensified with the California Gold Rush, in the in the 1850s. California joined the Union as a state in 1850. By the end of the 19th century, California was still largely rural and agricultural but had a population of about 1.4 million.



• 1 Before European contact

• 2 European exploration (1530–1765)

o 2.1 Hernán Cortés

o 2.2 Francisco de Ulloa

o 2.3 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo

o 2.4 Sir Francis Drake

o 2.5 Sebastián Vizcaíno

• 3 European exploration (1765 – 1821)

• 4 Spanish colonization and governance (1697 – 1821)

o 4.1 First Spanish colonies

o 4.2 Gaspar de Portolà

o 4.3 Junípero Serra

o 4.4 Alta California missions

o 4.5 Ranchos

• 5 Russian attempts at colonization

• 6 Mexican era (1821-1846)

o 6.1 General

o 6.2 Secularization

o 6.3 Other nationalities

o 6.4 American interest and immigrants

• 7 United States era (beginning 1846)

o 7.1 Bear Flag Revolt and American conquest

o 7.2 Gold Rush

o 7.3 Statehood: 1849-1850

o 7.4 The Civil War

o 7.5 Labor

o 7.6 Labor politics and the rise of Nativism

o 7.7 Rise of the railroads

• 8 Notes

• 9 References

o 9.1 Surveys

o 9.2 to 1846

o 9.3 1846-1900

• 10 See also

• 11 External links

[edit] Before European contact

The most

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