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Essay title: Management

Chapter 9 Reading notes

I. Communication: Its basic nature

a. communication is the process by which a person, group or organization transmits some type of info to another person or organization

i. Encoding- the process by which an idea is transformed so that it can be transmitted to, and recognized by a receiver. 1st step on communication

ii. Channels of communication- 2nd step, the pathways over which messages are transmitted (telephone, mail, email, etc…)

iii. Decoding- 3rd step; the process by which a receiver of messages transforms them back into the sender’s ideas. Sender must accurately decode the message

iv. Feedback- 4th step; knowledge about the impact of messages on receivers

v. Noise- factors capable of distorting the clarity of messages at any point during the communication process

II. Verbal communication: sharing messages with words

a. Traditional verbal media vary in richness

i. Traditional verbal media- forms of communication that does not depend on the use of computers. Face to face is rich

ii. Newsletters and employee handbooks are important b/c of the role they play in organizations

iii. Major purpose of employee handbooks is to explain key aspects of the companies policies, clarify the expectations of the company and express the companies philosophy

b. computer-mediated communication

i. computer-mediated communication- forms of communication that depends on the use of computers

ii. email most popular form of communication

iii. instant messaging- form of email that allows people who are online to share messages with one another instantaneously

iv. video mediate communication- conferences in which people can hear and see each other using computer

c. matching the medium to the message

i. communication if most effective when it uses multiple channels (i.e. both oral and written)

ii. two way communication is more popular in organizations than one way

iii. oral media is more effective than written media

III. Nonverbal communication: communicating without words

a. Nonverbal communication- the transmission of messages without the use of words

b. Style of dress

i. preferred style is business causal

c. Time: the waiting game

i. The longer you have to wait to see someone the higher in status they are

d. The use of space

i. The more space a person has the more power he has

1. Ex: higher status life insurance underwriters were found the have larger desks and offices than lower status trainees

2. The use of space communicates too. (using your desk to separate u and client, sitting at the head of the table)

IV. Individual differences in communication

a. Personal communication style

i. Personal communication style-the consistent ways people go about communicating with others

ii. The noble- individuals tend to not filter what they are thinking, but come right out and say it

iii. The Socratic- these people believe in carefully discussing things before making decisions, details, like arguing their points

iv. The reflective- are concerned with the interpersonal aspects of communication. They don’t like to offend others, are they are great listeners

v. The magistrate- style is a mix of part noble and Socratic. Tell you exactly what they think and make their cases in great detail.

vi. The candidate- mix b/w Socratics and reflective. They are warm and supportive while also being analytical and chatty

vii. The senator- an individual who has developed both noble and reflective style. They do not mix them. They move back and forth b/w them as needed

b. gender

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