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Microbiology Study Guide

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Essay title: Microbiology Study Guide

Study Guide Notes ЎV Test 1


1. Linnaeus ЎV naming system

Hooke ЎV cells in cork

Van Leeuwenhoek ЎV animalcules (1st obs. of live microorganisms)

Redi ЎV experiment to disprove spontaneous generation ЎV meat

Needham ЎV experiment to prove spontaneous generation ЎV broth (vital force)

Spallanzani ЎV heated broth did not develop microbial growth

Virchow ЎV biogenesis (living can only arise from preexisting living)

Pasteur ЎV air contained, but did not produce, microbes (broth, s-flasks); pasteurization; lose virility, still immunity

Lister ЎV aseptic surgery (phenol on surgical wounds)

Koch ЎV cause of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ЎV bacteria in blood, injected into healthy, died, compared bacteria

Jenner ЎV vaccines (cowpox provided immunity against small pox) ЎV milk maids

Erlich ЎV Ў§magic bulletЎЁ; salvarsan against syphilis

Fleming ЎV Penicillium chrysogenum inhibited bacteria growth in plate

Beadle & Tatum ЎV one gene one enzyme hypothesis

Avery, MacLeod & McCarty ЎV DNA = hereditary material

Tatum & Lederberg ЎV conjugation

Watson & Crick ЎV aa model for structure/replication of DNA

Jacob & Monod ЎV mRNA

Beijerinck & Winogradsky ЎV microbial ecology

2. Naming: Latinized, Genus 1st - always caps, species 2nd - always lower case, both underlined or italics; descriptive

3. Characteristics

a. Prokaryotes

i. Bacteria

1. Many shapes: bacillus (rods), coccus (sphere), spirilla (spiral)

2. Individually or in groups

3. Reproduce by binary fission

ii. Archaea


2. Shares characteristics with bacteria and euk, but diff from each

3. Often in extreme environments

4. 3 groups:

a. methanogens (produce methane)

b. extreme thermophiles (hot sulfurous water)

c. extreme halophiles (very salty environments)

b. Eukaryotes

i. Fungi

1. Multi- or Uni-cellular (yeasts)

2. Cell walls mostly chitin

3. Typical fungi = molds

a. Form mycelia, composted of hyphae

4. Reproduce sexually or asexually

ii. Protozoa

1. Unicellular

2. Move via:

a. Pseudopods (extensions of cytoplasm)

b. Flagella (whiplike)

c. Cilia (shorter)

3. Free or as parasite

4. Sexual or asexual

iii. Algae

1. photosynthetic

2. variety of shapes

3. sexual and asexual reproductive forms

4. cell walls composed of cellulose (like plants)

5. take co2, sunlight, h20 ЎV create oxygen and carbs (imp. In balance of environment)

iv. Viruses

1. Very diff. from other microbes

2. Very small ЎV need electron microscope

3. Acellular

a. Nucleic acid core

b. Protein coat

c. Some also have envelope

4. Obligate

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